Dynamic Decision Making Laboratory
RESEARCH
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By Year

In Press
2014
2013
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2000
Before 2000

By Theme

Basic Research
Applied Research

Selected Publications By Year

In Press

Gonzalez, C., Ben-Asher, N., Martin, J. & Dutt, V. (in press). A cognitive model of dynamic cooperation with varied interdependency information. Cognitive Science.

Martin, J. M., Gonzalez, C., Juvina, I., & Lebiere, C. (in press). A description-experience gap in social interactions: Information about interdependence and its effects on cooperation. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making.

Dutt, V., Arlo-Costa, H., Helzner, J., & Gonzalez, C. (in press). The description-experience gap in risky and ambiguous gambles. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making.

Lejarraga, T., Lejarraga, J., & Gonzalez, C. (2014). Decisions from experience: How groups and individuals adapt to change. Memory & Cognition.

Mehlhorn, K., Ben-Asher, N., Dutt, V., & Gonzalez, C. (in press). Observed variability and values matter: Towards a better understanding of information search and decisions from experience. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making.

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2014

Yu, M., Muniba, S., & Gonzalez, C. (2014). Developing trust: First impressions and experience. Journal of Economic Psychology, 43, 16-29. doi:10.1016/j.joep.2014.04.004

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2013

Gonzalez, C. (2013). Cognitive science: An introduction. In P. Lanzer (Ed.), Catheter-based cardiovascular interventions (pp. 61-67). Springer.

Gonzalez, C. (2013). From individual decisions from experience to behavioral game theory: Lessons for cyber security. In S. Jajodia, A. K. Ghosh, V. S. Subrahmanian, V. Swarup, C. Wang, & X. S. Wang (Eds.), Moving target defense II: Applications of game theory and adversarial modeling (pp. 73-86). New York: Springer.

Gonzalez, C. (2013). The boundaries of instance-based learning theory for explaining decisions from experience. In V. S. Chandrasekhar Pammi & N. Srinivasan (Eds.), Progress in brain research (Vol. 202, pp. 73-98). Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Elsevier.

Gonzalez, C., Dutt, V., & Lebiere, C. (2013). Validating instance-based learning mechanisms outside of ACT-R. Journal of Computational Science, 4(4), 262-268.

Gonzalez, C., & Lebiere, C. (2013). Cognitive architectures combine formal and heuristic approaches. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 36(3), 285-285.

Gonzalez, C., Martin, J. M., Minshew, N. J., & Behrmann, M. (2013). Practice makes improvement: How adults with autism out-perform others in a naturalistic visual search task. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(10), 2259-2268.

Gonzalez, C., Saner, L. & Eisenberg, L. (2013). Learning to stand in the other's shoes: A computer video game experience of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. Social Science Computer Review, 31(2), 236-243.

Dutt, V., Ahn, Y., & Gonzalez, C. (2013). Cyber situation awareness: Modeling detection of cyber attacks with Instance-Based Learning Theory. Human Factors, 55(3), 605-618.

Dutt, V., & Gonzalez, C. (2013). Climate risk communication: Effects of cost, timing, and probability of climate consequences in decisions from description and experience. In D. C. L. Fung (Ed.), Psychology of policy making (pp. 23-48). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers.

Dutt, V., & Gonzalez, C. (2013). Enabling eco-friendly choices by relying on the proportional-thinking heuristic. Sustainability, 5, 357-371.

Dutt, V., & Gonzalez, C. (2013). Reducing the linear perception of nonlinearity: Use of a physical representation. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 26(1), 51-67.

Dutt, V., & Gonzalez, C. (2013). Responding linearly in nonlinear problems: Application to earth's climate. In M. Carpenter & E. J. Shelton (Eds.), Carbon dioxide emissions: New research (pp. 15-30). Hauppauge, New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Juvina, I., Saleem M., Gonzalez, C., & Lebiere, C. (2013). Reciprocal trust mediates deep transfer of learning between games of strategic interaction. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 120(2), 206-215.

Madhavan, P., Gonzalez, C., & Brown, J. R. (2013). The impact of target base rate on training and transfer of learning in airline luggage screening: An examination of three base rate scenarios. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 27(2), 263-273.

Martin, J. M., Juvina, I., Lebiere, C., & Gonzalez, C. (2013). The effects of individual and context on aggression in repeated social interaction. Applied Ergonomics, 44(5), 710-718.

Neo, W. S., Yu, M., Weber, R., & Gonzalez, C. (2013). The effects of time delay in reciprocity games. Journal of Economic Psychology, 34, 20-35.

Proctor, R. W., Yamaguchi, M., Dutt, V., & Gonzalez, C. (2013). Dissociation of S-R compatibility and Simon effects with mixed tasks and mappings. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 39(2), 593-609.

Yu, M., & Gonzalez, C. (2013). Stopping decisions: Information order effects on non-focal evaluations. Human Factors, 55(4), 732-746.

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2012

Gonzalez, C. (2012). Cognitive models of training principles and the Instance-Based Learning Tool. In A. Healy & L. E. Bourne (Eds.), Training cognition: Optimizing efficiency, durability, and generalizability (pp. 181-200). New York: Psychology Press.

Gonzalez, C. (2012). Training decisions from experience with decision making games. In P. Durlach & A. M. Lesgold (Eds.), Adaptive technologies for training and education (pp. 167-178). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Gonzalez, C., & Dutt, V. (2012). Refuting data aggregation arguments and how the IBL model stands criticism: A reply to Hills and Hertwig (2012). Psychological Review, 119(4), 893-898.

Gonzalez, C., Kampf, R., & Martin, J. M. (2012). Action diversity in a simulation of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(1), 233-240.

Gonzalez, C., & Saner, L. D. (2012). Thinking or feeling? Effects of decision making personality in conflict resolution. In J. von Brinken & H. Konietzny (Eds.), Emotional gaming (pp. 77-89). Germany: epodium.

Gonzalez, C. & Wong, H. (2012). Understanding stocks and flows through analogy. System Dynamics Review, 28(1), 3-27.

Dutt, V., & Gonzalez, C. (2012). Making Instance-based Learning Theory usable and understandable: The Instance-based Learning Tool. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(4), 1227-1240. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2012.02.006

Dutt, V., & Gonzalez, C. (2012). Cyber situation awareness: Modeling the security analyst in a cyber-attack scenario through instance-based learning. In C. Onwubiko and T. Owens (Eds.), Situational awareness in computer network defense: Principles, methods and applications (pp. 125-140). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Dutt, V., & Gonzalez, C. (2012). Decisions from experience reduce misconceptions about climate change. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 32(1), 19-29. doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2011.10.003

Dutt, V., & Gonzalez, C. (2012). Human control of climate change. Climatic Change, 111(3-4), 497-518.

Dutt, V., & Gonzalez, C. (2012). Why do we want to delay actions on climate change? Effects of probability and timing of climate consequences. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 25(2), 154-164.

Dutt, V., & Gonzalez, C. (2012). The role of inertia in modeling decisions from experience with instance-based learning. Frontiers in Cognitive Science, 3, 177. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00177

Lejarraga, T., Dutt, V., & Gonzalez, C. (2012). Instance-Based Learning: A general model of repeated binary choice. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 25(2), 143-153.

Lejarraga, T., Hertwig, R., & Gonzalez, C. (2012). How choice ecology influences search in decisions from experience. Cognition, 124(3), 334-342.

Madhavan, P., Lacson, F. C., Gonzalez, C., & Brennan, P. C. (2012). The role of incentive framing on training and transfer of learning in visual threat detection task. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 26, 194-206.

Yu, M., Lejarraga, T., & Gonzalez, C. (2012). Context-specific, scenario-based risk scales. Risk Analysis, 32(12), 2166-2181.

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2011

Gonzalez, C., Best, B., Healy, A., Kole, J., & Bourne Jr., L. E. (2011). A cognitive modeling account of fatigue effects. Journal of Cognitive Systems Research, 12(1), 19-32.

Gonzalez, C., & Dutt, V. (2011). A generic dynamic control task for behavioral research and education. Computers in Human Behavior, 27, 1904-1914.

Gonzalez, C., & Dutt, V. (2011). Instance-based learning: Integrating decisions from experience in sampling and repeated choice paradigms. Psychological Review, 118(4), 523-551.

Gonzalez, C., Dutt, V., & Lejarraga, T. (2011). A loser can be a winner: Comparisons of two instance-based learning models in a market entry competition. Games, 2(1), 136-162.

Gonzalez, C., & Madhavan, P. (2011). Diversity during practice enhances detection of novel stimuli. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 23(3), 342-350.

Gonzalez, C., & Martin, J. M. (2011). Scaling up instance-based learning theory to account for social interaction. Negotiation and Conflict Management Research, 4(2), 110-128.

Gonzalez, C., & Martin, J. M. (2011). Dynamic decision making and cultural affiliation. In R. W. Proctor, S. Noff, & Y. Yih (Eds.), Cultural factors in decision making and action (pp. 33-52). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Brunstein, A., & Gonzalez, C. (2011). Preparing for novelty with diverse training. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 25(5), 682-691.

Dutt, V., Ahn, Y-S., & Gonzalez, C. (2011). Cyber situation awareness: Modeling the security analyst in a cyber-attack scenario through instance-based learning. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 6818, 280-292.

Juvina, I., Lebiere, C., Martin, J. M., & Gonzalez, C. (2011). Intergroup prisoner's dilemma with intragroup power dynamics. Games, 2, 21-51.

Lejarraga, T. & Gonzalez, C. (2011). Effects of feedback and complexity on repeated decisions from description. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 116, 286-295.

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2010

Gonzalez, C., & Czlonka, L. (2010). Games for peace: Empirical investigations with PeaceMaker. In J. Cannon-Bowers & C. Bowser (Eds.), Serious game design and development: Technologies for training and learning (pp. 134-149). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Brunstein, A., Gonzalez, C., & Kanter, S. (2010). Effects of domain experience in the stock-flow failure. System Dynamics Review, 26(4), 347-354.

Kiziltas, S., Akinci, B., & Gonzalez, C. (2010). Comparison of expert and novice cost estimators' behaviors in information pull and push methods. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 37(2), 290-301.

Lebiere, C., Gonzalez, C., & Warwick, W. (2010). Cognitive architectures, model comparisons, and AGI. Journal of Artificial Intelligence, 2(2), 1-19.

Madhavan, P. & Gonzalez, C. (2010). The relationship between stimulus-response mappings and the detection of novel stimuli in a simulated luggage screening task. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 11(5), 461-473.

Strater, L. D., Cuevas, H. M., Connors, E. S., Gonzalez, C., Ungvarsky, D. M., & Endsley, M. R. (2010). Optimizing technology-mediated ad hoc team performance: Consideration of cognitive, behavioral, and attitudinal factors. In K. L. Mosier & U. M. Fisher (Eds.), Informed by knowledge: Expert performance in complex situations (pp. 149-164). London, UK: Psychology Press.

Young, M. D., Healy, A. F., Gonzalez, C., Dutt, V., & Bourne, L. E. (2010). Effects of training with added difficulties on RADAR detection. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24, 1-22.

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2009

Gonzalez, C., & Brunstein, A. (2009). Dynamic decision making and training in disaster triage. Journal of Trauma, Injury, Infection and Critical Care, 67(2), 100-105.

Gonzalez, C., Saner, L., Endsley, M., Bolstad, C. A., & Cuevas, H. M. (2009). Modeling and measuring situation awareness in individuals and teams. In P. McDermott & L. Allender (Eds.), Advanced decisions architectures for the warfighter: Foundations and technology (pp. 257-272). Army Research Laboratory Advance Decision Architectures Collaborative Technology Alliance.

Gonzalez, C., Thomas, R. P., & Madhavan, P. (2009). The effects of conjunctive search and response mappings on automatic performance in a complex visual task. In D. H. Andrews, R. P. Herz, & M. Wolf (Eds.), Human factors issues in combat identification (pp. 85-98). Surrey, UK: Ashgate Publishing Limited.

Brenan R., Madhavan, P., & Gonzalez, C., (2009). The impact of performance incentives during training on transfer of learning. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 53rd Annual Meeting. San Antonio, TX: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Cronin, M., Gonzalez, C., & Sterman, J. D. (2009). Why don't well-educated adults understand accumulation? A challenge to researchers, educators and citizens. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 108, 116-130.

Dutt, V., & Gonzalez, C. (2009). Human "mis"-perceptions of climate change. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 53rd Annual Meeting. San Antonio, TX, October 19-23, 2009. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Lebiere, C., Gonzalez, C., & Warwick, W. (2009). A comparative approach to understanding general intelligence: Predicting cognitive performance in an open-ended dynamic task. In B. Goertzel, P. Hitzler, & M. Hutter (Eds.), Proceedings of the Second Conference on Artificial General Intelligence. Arlington, VA: Atlantis Press.

Saner, L. D., Bolstad, C. A., Gonzalez, C., & Cuevas, H. M. (2009). Measuring and predicting shared situation awareness in teams. Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, 3(3), 280-308.

Saner, L. D., & Gonzalez, C. (2009). Naturalistic decision framing in computer mediated scientific exploration. In B. L. W. Wong & N. A. Stanton (Eds.), Proceedings of the 9th Bi-Annual International Conference on Naturalistic Decision Making (pp. 138-143). Swindon, UK: The British Computer Society.

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2008

Gonzalez, C., & Thomas, R. (2008). Effects of automatic detection on dynamic decision making. Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, 2(4), 328-348.

Dutt, V., & Gonzalez, C. (2008). Human perceptions of climate change. In B. Dangerfield (Ed.), Proceedings of the 26th International Conference of the System Dynamics Society (pp. 47). Athens, Greece: System Dynamics Society.

Lacson, F., Gonzalez, C., & Madhavan, P. (2008). Framing and context effects in visual search training. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting (HFES 52th Annual Meeting) (pp. 348-352). NYC, NY: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

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2007

Gonzalez, C. & Dutt, V. (2007). Learning to control a dynamic task: A system dynamics cognitive model of the slope effect. In Lewis, Polk, & Laird (Eds.), Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Cognitive Modeling (pp. 61-66). Ann Arbor, MI.

Gonzalez, C., & Vrbin, C. (2007). Dynamic simulation of medical diagnosis: Learning in the medical decision making and learning environment MEDIC. In A. Holzinger (Ed.), Usability & HCI for Medicine and Health Care. 3rd Symposium of the Austrian Computer Society (Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 4799), ISBN: 978-3-540-76804-3.

Gonzalez, C., & Wimisberg, J. (2007). Situation awareness in dynamic decision-making: Effects of practice and working memory. Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, 1(1), 56-74.

Best, B. J., Gonzalez, C., Young, M. D., Healy, A. F., & Bourne, L. E., Jr. (2007). Modeling automaticity and strategy selection in dynamic visual detection. In Proceedings of the Sixteenth Conference on Behavior Representation in Modeling and Simulation (pp. 3-11). Orlando, FL: Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization.

Cronin, M., & Gonzalez C. (2007). Understanding the building blocks of systems dynamics. Systems Dynamics Review, 23(1), 1-17.

Dutt, V. & Gonzalez, C. (2007). Slope of inflow impacts dynamic decision making. In Proceedings of the 25th International Conference of the System Dynamics Society. (pp. 79). Boston, MA: System Dynamics Society.

Graham, J., Gonzalez, C., & Schneider, M. (2007). A dynamic network analysis of an organization with expertise out of context. In R. Hoffman (Ed.), Expertise out of context. New York, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Lebiere, C., Gonzalez, C. & Martin, M.K. (2007). Instance-based decision making model of repeated binary choice. In Lewis, Polk, & Laird (Eds.), Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Cognitive Modeling (ICCM) (pp. 77-82). Ann Arbor, MI.

Madhavan, P., Gonzalez, C., & Lacson, F. (2007). Differential base rate training influences detection of novel targets in a complex visual inspection task. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting (HFES 51st Annual Meeting) (pp. 392-396). Baltimore, MD: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

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2006

Gonzalez, C., Martin, M. K., & Hansberger, J. (2006). Feedforward effects on predictions in a dynamic battle scenario. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting (HFES 50th Annual Meeting) (pp. 265-269). Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Fu., W., & Gonzalez, C. (2006). Learning in dynamic decision making: Information utilization and future planning. In R. Sun (Ed.), The 28th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (CogSci 2006) (pp. 244-249). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Fu., W., Gonzalez, C., Healy, A. F., Kole, J. A., & Bourne, L. E., Jr. (2006). Building predictive models of skill acquisition in a data entry task. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting (HFES 50th Annual Meeting) (pp. 1122-1126). Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Graham, J., Zheng, L., & Gonzalez, C. (2006). A cognitive approach to game usability and design: Mental model development in novice real-time strategy gamers. Cyber Psychology & Behavior, 9(3), 361-366.

Madhavan, P., & Gonzalez, C. (2006). Effects of sensitivity, criterion shifts and subjective confidence on the development of automaticity in airline luggage screening. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting (HFES 50th Annual Meeting) (pp. 334-338). Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

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2005

Gonzalez C. (2005). Decision support for real-time dynamic decision making tasks. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 96, 142-154.

Gonzalez, C. (2005). Task workload and cognitive abilities in dynamic decision making. Human Factors, 47(1), 92-101.

Gonzalez, C., Dana, J., Koshino, H., & Just, M. (2005). The framing effect and risky decisions: Examining cognitive functions with fMRI. Journal of Economic Psychology, 26(1), 1-20.

Gonzalez C., & Lebiere, C. (2005). Instance-based cognitive models of decision making. In Zizzo, D. and Courakis, A. (Eds.). Transfer of knowledge in economic decision making. New York: Palgrave McMillan.

Gonzalez C., Thomas, R., & Vanyukov, P. (2005). The relationships between cognitive ability and dynamic decision making. Intelligence, 33(2), 169-186.

Gonzalez C., Vanyukov, P., & Martin M. K. (2005). The use of microworlds to study dynamic decision making. Computers in Human Behavior, 21, 273-286.

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2004

Gonzalez, C. (2004). Learning to make decisions in dynamic environments: Effects of time constraints and cognitive abilities. Human Factors, 46(3), 449-460.

Gonzalez, C., Juarez, O., & Graham, J. (2004). Cognitive and computational models as tools to improve situation awareness. In Proceedings of the 48th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. New Orleans, LA, September

Graham, J., Schneider, M., Bauer, A., Bessiere, K., & Gonzalez, C. (2004). Shared mental models in military command and control organizations: Effect of social network distance. In Proceedings of the 48th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES). Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Juarez, O., & Gonzalez, C. (2004). Situation awareness of commanders: A cognitive model. Proceedings of the Conference on Behavior Representation in Modeling and Simulation. Arlington, VA, May.

Martin, M. K., Gonzalez, C., & Lebiere, C. (2004). Learning to make decisions in dynamic environments: ACT-R plays the Beer Game. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Cognitive Modeling. Pittsburgh, PA, July–August.

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2003

Gonzalez, C. (2003). Verbal protocols from novices and experts in dynamic decision making. Proceedings of the 47th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. Denver, CO, October.

Gonzalez, C. & Golenbock, J. (2003). Impact of numerical and graphical formats on dynamic decision making performance: An eye-tracking study. In A. Sánchez & C. de Souza (Eds.), Proceedings of the First Latin American Conference of Human-Computer Interaction. ACM: SIGCHI.

Gonzalez, C., Lerch, F. J., & Lebiere, C. (2003). Instance-based learning in dynamic decision making, Cognitive Science, 27, 591-635.

Gonzalez, C., & Quesada, J. (2003). Learning in dynamic decision making: The recognition process, Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory, 9(4), 287-304.

de Souza, C., Sanchez, A., Barbosa, S., & Gonzalez, C. (2003). Proceedings of the Latin American Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (ACM International Conference Proceedings Series, Vol. 46). New York: ACM Press.

Graham, J., Gonzalez, C., & Doyle, M. (2003). Using communication patterns in the design of an adaptive organizational structure for command and control. In Proceedings of the 47th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES) (pp. 410-413). Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

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2002

Gonzalez, C. (2002). The role of cognitive modeling in enhancing dynamic decisions. In W. D. Gray & C. D. Schunn (Eds.), Proceedings of the 24th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (CogSci 2002) (p. 1005). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

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2000

Gonzalez, C. (2000). Review of Human performance and ergonomics, edited by Peter A. Hancock. International Journal of Cognitive Ergonomics, 4(3): 271-272.

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Before 2000

Gonzalez, C. (1996). Does animation in user interfaces improve decision making? In M. J. Tauber (Ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 27-34). New York, NY: The Association for Computing Machinery; Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Gonzalez, C. (1995). Visual design of interaction, dialog, or interface. SIGCHI Bulletin, 27(1), 12-13.

Gonzalez, C., & Kasper, G. (1999). Animation in user interfaces. In K. E. Kendall (Ed.), Emerging information technologies: Improving decisions, cooperation, and infrastructure. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. ISBN: 0761917497, 45-74.

Gonzalez, C., & Kasper, G. (1997). Animation in user interfaces designed for decision support systems: The effects of image abstraction, transition, and interactivity on decision quality. Decision Sciences Journal, 28(4), 793-823.

Gonzalez, C., Sanchez, A., & Prates, R. O. (1999). Encouraging CHI collaboration in Latin America. Paper presented at the International Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (HFES), Pittsburgh, PA, May 15-20.

Lerch, F. J., Gonzalez, C., & Lebiere, C. (1999). Learning under high cognitive workload. In M. Hahn & S. C. Stoness (Eds.), Proceedings of the 21st Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (CogSci 1999) (pp. 302-307). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

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The Dynamic Decision Making Laboratory is part of the Social and Decision Sciences DepartmentCarnegie Mellon University. For updates and comments, please email hauyuw@andrew.cmu.edu.